Certificate of Testing Procedures
At Carter Lux we strive to bring you the highest quality 24 Carat Gold Plating and professionally assembled Apply Watch. During the manufacturing we perform the following test:
A NON-DESTRUCTIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF METAL ALLOY WIRE SAMPLES
Although quantitative analysis of metal alloys is typically accomplished by wet-chemical techniques, complete dissolution of some metal alloys can be difficult. Here, we report an alternative non-destructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method for determination of nickel, gold, copper, and silver in metal alloy wires. Sample preparation is simple and consists of mounting wires as a single strand in machined polyethylene sample cups. Wires are analyzed in two symmetrical positions nearly parallel to the x-ray beam, thereby improving the external reproducibility of the analysis. Ideally, standards and samples are matched in terms of chemical composition and diameter. For 50 mil copper-silver wire, four certified reference wires consisting of various copper-silver compositions and matching the unknown diameter were used. However, we also investigated standards of different elemental composition and thickness. For analysis of 25 mil nickel-gold wires, 20 mil NIST standard wires consisting of copper-gold were applied for standardization and compared with certified 25 mil nickel-gold standards. Variations in wire diameter were corrected using an infinite thickness approximation, and nickel intensities were calculated from the copper intensities using a fundamental parameters calculation. The standard curves obtained from both approaches are similar, indicating that wires of varying thickness and composition can be applied as standards. Analysis of copper-silver and nickel-copper wire “unknowns” agrees with certified values to better than 0.3 wt %. We conclude that this rapid, non-destructive method could be a useful alternative to wet-chemical methods for many applications.
Gravimetric analysis is a technique through which the amount of an analyte (the ion being analyzed) can be determined through the measurement of mass. Gravimetric analyses depend on comparing the masses of two compounds containing the analyte. The principle behind gravimetric analysis is that the mass of an ion in a pure compound can be determined and then used to find the mass percent of the same ion in a known quantity of an impure compound. In order for the analysis to be accurate, certain conditions must be met:
- The ion being analyzed must be completely precipitated.
- The precipitate must be a pure compound.
- The precipitate must be easily filtered.
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